AI Decision

Related to a previous post ( What leads to better User Experience? ), regrading what would lead to a better user experience, I’ve decided to follow up on that information by focusing around what experts think would help create a more immersive game or user experience when it comes to creating an AI.

Expert opinions

Kimberly Voll – Game Designer, software engineer and cognitive scientist

Kimberly Voll during a conference for GDC, discusses how a simple AI is better than a complex AI. When designing your AI, to start stupid, making it follow the player as the first step for example. Then to polish from there, adding new features as you go, and to resist complicating your AI. The AI you are creating should provide a challenge or help the immersion of the game, think simple, work with your brain.

She also talks about the behaviors of the AI, choosing specifically a behavior to work around, is better than having a complex model. I think I can see where she is coming from, having a simple AI that only has a select few amount of jobs is better than having it try and do everything within your game. Bottom line, having a simple AI can work better than a complex one.

My supervisor Craig also said “Instead of having one AI trying to do everything, to split them between multiple AI’s”, this is a good example of taking simple into consideration.

James Portnow ( Introduction to James Portnow ), a professional in the game industry does a short 8min video talking about AI in video games ( Game AI – Funtelligence – Extra Credits ). He also dispels the misconception about complex AI not being good AI, “Game AI’s are not going to do their job better just because they are more complex”, he also talks about the purpose of a Game AI and how a learnable AI works and intuitable AI.

But he also makes a lot of great points when it comes to the complexity of a Game AI, well basically just putting down the idea of complex AI’s.

  • Don’t use enormous behavior trees when a basic script could get the job done just fine
  • Don’t try to model absolutely lifelike behavior when something much simpler would be more engaging for the players.
  • Don’t create one complicated behavior set, when you could easily create two simpler entities. (Like what Craig had told me)

A lot of this has to do with the type of game being created, but they both encourage to go with a simple AI behavior over a complex one.



  • Easily understood or grasped by intuition

James Portnow discusses how intuitable AI works and the difference it has to a learnable AI, a Learnable AI isn’t a AI that learns in this context, it’s more about the player learning about the AI, Learnable AI are basic and should allow the player to be able to learn how they move or what frame they move at depending on how much time the player spends on the game.

A Intuitable AI, is different it has a decision tree that is responsive to the player. The NPC will make a decision based on the situation at hand, in a FPS, if a player throws a grenade that has a blast radius and the NPC is in that blast radius it will go through it’s decisions and choose the best one fitting for the situation in this case, jumping to cover. Therefor it is not predictable like a learnable AI, but it also needs to be intuitable by the player, the player should be able to understand what the NPC is doing and react to the NPCs actions.


Conclusion to this, the purpose was to answer the question of which path my AI should head towards. A simple AI is the obvious choice, but I also will add some sort of complexity to it. Like Kimberly Voll suggests, start simple and then go complex. If it gets too complex, I can split the behavior into two entities to make it more simple, but I will also need to make the demo intuitable to the player, an AI should work with the core purpose of the game, to create that intuitable feeling.





What leads to better User Experience?

As I begun my research into finding out how to create a good user experience, UX design was the main thing that kept popping up in my searches. It was an interesting concept and I remember my supervisor Craig mentioning it to as well, so this blog is semi focused around the concept of UX, in hopes it will help with my question.

From what I understand UX is quite a new term and their are still a lot of misconceptions about it, so whether or not what I write down is correct or not, I will do my best to make the information concrete.

What is UX?

UX design is neither game design nor UI design. It’s a separate but intrinsically linked role, because it holds UI and game design together, providing the glue for the game you are making. It should be the starting point for any game design, and the blueprint from which everything else is created.

Why is it important?

UX design is important because with a good UX design, games can be become more immersive to the players, UX designers are the architects of the game environment. The best kind of UX design is one where the user doesn’t notice it, removing friction between the lpayer and the game.

The Misconception of UX

According to this article ( The-7-factors-that-influence-user-experience ), UX design is commonly confused with usability, which describes to some extent how easy a product is to use. UX started with Usability as a discipline, but has no grown to accommodate more.

  • Useful – Has no purpose, if no one finds it useful
  • Usable – enabling users effective and efficient means of achieving the end goal
  • Findable – Easy to find the product
  • Credible – Users trust in the product
  • Desirable – The more desirable the more the user will want it
  • Accessible – Providing an experience which can bring out the users full abilities
  • Valuable – product must deliver value

In all honesty I think this article and it’s information didn’t really provide any information towards a better user experience as much as the others I have read. It also felt like it was more focused around the selling of a product.

It is kind of hard to determine who’s version of UX design is correct and true, but it also could mean that the different concepts are all the same really, just interpreted differently.

Don Norman, a man known for his work in design, he is most known for his book ‘The Design of Everyday things’, suggests that when it comes to the term of UX, most people are getting it wrong, he says that just because someone can design a website or an app that is not entirely getting into user experience, and states “Everything that touches upon your experience with the product” that defines user experience. “Its the way you experience everything, apps, computer systems, games etc.”

Effective UX design

  1. UX design is definitive; it produces a blueprint from which to develop the game system. UX design should be treated as a separate task to game design, but they need to work closely together to complement and strengthen each other.
  2. It’s a fundamental way of approaching your entire design and production pipeline that starts right from the initial game idea and follows through to release.
  3. A UX design process should make your game design documentation better.
  4. A good UX designer needs to have a certain set of skills and what we refer to as “systems thinking” – an ability to map out complex systems in their head. UX designer needs to not just have an extreme attention to detail but also be driven to find the simplest solution to each problem.
  5. This brings us to the final point and that is programmers vs UX designers. In one sense, programmers can make great UX designers. They can actually be a better fit for the role than game designers, because they have the same problem solving and attention to detail traits. However, there is a natural conflict between what is best for the user, and what is the easiest way to code, which can only be solved if you have two separate entities working from and representing each point of view. The way to approach this is to never allow the same person to program and do UX design on a project, even if they have the ability to do both.

How does a good UX design affect a game?

UX design seems to be quite an important factor when it comes to game design, a good UX will determine the outcome of the product. Judging on what I’ve been researching user experience is a key essential to creating a successful game. There are so many factors you need to take into account with user experience, and it mainly revolves around your users, targeting them seem to be key.

So, a good UX design can either create a well put together game that creates immersion for it’s users or will break the game entirely.


The reason for these questions being asked and answered is purely for me to get an understanding on what I need to know and consider when it comes to designing my AI to enhance the user experience of my VR Environment.

I think if I am going to continue down this road with creating an AI that functions inside of a Virtual Reality, using this UX design to properly think about the outcome will improve my chances of creating something great. It will also help me with the scope, what the environment will have, what sort of AI I should create to make the environment it will be in seem more real and flow together.


Why good user experience design in games is no longer a luxury

5 Misconceptions about UX (User Experience) in Video Games




Supervisor Discussion #2

Friday 19/08/2017

Meeting with Craig involved talking about the direction of my project. As my research was going under way, it felt like my project was expanding into too many directions and not focused enough on a single direction. This caused me to feel a bit overwhelmed and overthinking what I needed to do and what I should do.

Talking with Craig, he was able to help me set up a direction I should aim for, he first suggested I draw up a skill tree and go over what I’ve covered so far with games AI’s, simple and effective, It was able to help me understand what I should be aiming for next with my Game AI which was good.

We talked about what is the best way to go about creating a Game AI that would influence better user experience and how the experts would go about doing this as well, these were subjects given to me to research, to help with the direction of my Game AI, well I was to decide after doing the research.

Talking with Craig I was able to conduct a suitable plan to work with and a goal to head towards.


Lab one, mainly had to do with setting up our virtual machines on the talos server, using VSphere. The actual lab says to use Hyper-V manager, but I believe that the class we spent setting up the Virtual Machines was that lab re-done to tutor specifics.

The set up process was instructed by Mark, during class. Started off by logging in to vSphere with our accounts.


Creating the virtual machines by locating the .vmx file in our storage, and registering the virtual machine using that file. We did this process for our server virtual machine and ROGUE virtual machine. The registering of the virtual machines would add the virtual machines to our SEC folder.


Everyone had the same error once they had finished registering their virtual machines and that was that we all had ‘Mac address conflicts’. This is because when the virtual machines were created they duplicated the same mac address on the switch we were all on (I think? estimated guess from what I remember), how we fixed this was by going through each virtual machines hardware settings and changing the network adapter to our own switches. The Mac address conflict was gone after that.


Once the set up was all done, we were able to start doing the labs, I wasn’t 100% sure if what we did to set up our virtual machines was what lab one was getting us to do, so I wasted a lot of time going over lab one and using the Hyper-V manager! so carried on after a while and just assumed. The rest of the lab was just opening up the virtual machines, which I used VMware to do and sigining in and out, getting familiar with the set-up.


Video Blog #2

Video #1

Intro to a video game AI for beginners
Squared Programming

This video gave a brief but informative introduction into game AI’s, It’s actually where i learnt about Finite State Machines for AI, Neural Networks and the Planner AI architecture, and how they work for AI. At the end he lists off a bunch of AI architectures, which is what my previous blog was based around.

He talks about adding structure to nodes using a Finite State Machine (FSMs), explaining that the state will contain all the information about the agent and when to transition to another state, FSM works well, because using states we are able to keep the AI logic in reasonable places. He also goes into how behavior trees, Planner and neural systems work, the neural system took a lot longer to understand, as it usually refers to the human neural system. But this video was able to point me into the right track for my Game AI, in regards to the architectures.

Video #2

Unity C# Tutorial  – Chasing Object State Machines
Justin M

Justin M gives a Unity lesson on creating a ghost (object) that chases the player when the player is facing the opposite way of the ghost. Using a State Machine to control the ghosts behavior. There were three scripts involved with this lesson, Player Movement Handler, which would detects a players input for movement, Ghost State Machine which held the ghosts states inside and Ghost Chase which would move the ghost depending on the current state the ghost was in.

PlayerMovementHandle Script.


GhostStateMachine Script


GhostChase Script


This video helped me to better understand how state machines work, I want to tackle a more advanced state machine in order to figure out if it is the best choice for my Game AI or if I should consider an alternative technique.

Video #3

Less is More: Designing Awesome AI for games
Dr Kimberly Voll – Game Designer, software engineer & cognitive scientist.
Kimberly Voll specializes in human perception in games (PhD in software engineering and AI).

Kimberly Voll gives amazing insight into game AI’s in this talk, she explains what your AI should accomplish inside your game. The points she makes are great advice as I will run over a few of those points now.

  • Game AI should be made to support the experience of video games
  • What does an AI give to a game? Depth?
  • Good AI can add a sense of challenge, immersion, depth etc.
  • Bad AI is a threat to flow and immersion – I think I can understand that, playing video games where the AI is less believable does ruin an experience.
  • AI is a perception problem, how the player perceives it in that moment.
  • The more you model the more something will stand out as artificial to your brain.
  • A suggestion of behavior is better than a complex model, but only if the behavior is consistent with the player’s mental model – although you are in control of the player, you are setting them up to be receptive to the world that is being portrayed.
  • She also says to “Work with the brain” –  This is in regards to perceiving what the brain wants to see.

She has her own process of steps that are quite good to keep in mind.

Step 1. Watch people play – Getting a sense of how people play videos games, it helps to find broad behaviors (Evading, chasing, looping etc.).

Step 2. Start Stupid – Make the AI follow the player as the first behavior.

Step 3. Identify (in)appropriate behaviors and fix them, create intelligent randomness (So that the brain does not find patterns in the game), Go simpler, before complex (Start at the bottom and work piece by piece to create your AI), Mimic what humans would do, Hide AI repetition in a natural repetition.

Step 4. Iterated – Created Game.

Process Summary

  1. Support the core experience
  2. Watch people play and get in their heads
  3. Identify broad behaviors
  4. Start Simple
  5. Figure out what the brain gives you for free
  6. Try going simpler before going complex.

At first I never took this much into consideration when I was discussing my AI with my supervisor, but this video has helped me see a new perspective on what a game AI should accomplish inside of video games, it’s more than just being able to code an AI to do some actions, but to have your AI be fully involved with the experience of your game to help create depth, challenge  or good companions, these sorts of things help create a more immersive world for the player and what I will be considering while working on this project.



Game AI Architectures + Activities

As I started my research into different methods of creating an AI, I wanted to revisit quickly what a ‘typical’ Game AI is, I know there are many variations of Game AI, but in order for me to find the best practices to creating my own, I wanted to visit the basics of Game AI, instead of jumping head first in and being overwhelmed with an overloaded amount of work.

I started of by learning about the different architectures that work with AI, this is theory work as of this moment. I wanted to learn more about Game AI’s and their systems before implementing code.

What is a typical Game AI?

  • NPC’s generated to have intelligent like behaviors that mimic human-like intelligence.
  • Computational behavior – Game AI is an algorithm that replaces randomness. A good Game AI is an algorithm that provides supervisor designed results to randomness.

What are some AI architectures?

Finite State Machines (State Machines):

State Machines are a hypothetical machine made of one or more states. Only a single state can be active at a time, so the machine has to transition between states to perform different actions.

Commonly used to to organize and represent execution flow, for instance the ‘brain’ of an enemy, can be implemented using a state machine, every state representing a action.

Example of a Enemy AI State machine.


Pretty self explanatory with this diagram. Wander would be the first state, when it wanders close to a player, it will transition to the attack node, player attacks back, the enemy will evade the attack.. you get the point.

The state machine seems to be the most common AI driven technique, a well written state machine makes the diagram easier to read, because it modularizes the code into logical states. Code maintenance is also easy, because new states can be added without having to mess much with the existing states.

Behavior Tree:

A behavior tree is a tree of hierarchical nodes that control the flow of decision making of an AI entity, with the leaves of the tree being the actual commands, and the branches being the utility nodes that control the AI transitions though the tree to choose which command is best suited for the current situation in the game.

Development is highly iterable, where you can start by forming a basic behavior, then create new branches to deal with alternate methods of achieving goals, with branches ordered by their desirability, allowing for the AI to have fallback tactics should a particular behavior fail. This is where they really shine.

Small Example of a Behavior Tree.


Planner (AI architecture):

Planner start with a goal and have different paths to achieve that goal, the AI systems will choose a path with the most completed steps.

Here is a diagram example of Planner.


The goal is to kill the player, so on each side of the goal are two paths, one path is to get near the player and punch him to death, while the other is to pick up a weapon and shoot the player. Because the AI already has a weapon, it only needs to complete the ‘shoot weapon’ step, where as path 2 requires 2 steps to complete. The AI will choose the path with the least steps to complete, to complete the goal.

Neural Systems (Network – AI):

Neural Networks are modeled after how the central nervous systems in humans and animals work.

For games, neural networks offer some key advantages over more traditional AI techniques. First, using a neural network may allow game developers to simplify the coding of complex state machines or rules-based systems by relegating key decision-making processes to one or more trained neural networks. Second, neural networks offer the potential for the game’s AI to adapt as the game is played. This is a rather intriguing possibility and is a very popular subject in the game AI community at this time.


This was the best way I could interpret the neural network.

According to my research, Forza’s Drivatar adaptive AI system, uses this technique. Forza is a popular car racing game on console. The Drivatar watches the player play and imitates the driving style, the Drivatar system is hooked into the Microsofts cloud services, where it is able to pull in AI racers based off other human players, they are even able to learn complex maneuvers.

I will begin more conclusive research into each of these methods, while trying some basic practical work, in order to advance my knowledge, and see which is best suited for the AI in a VR environment.


So far the activities I have been doing have been based around research and the Udemy online course.

Udemy has taught me about the user interface of Unity, scripting using C#, variables, refactoring code, console commands, debugging and some C# coding.

Udemy actually taught me about Finite State Machines in one of the tutorials, where I was required to create a story based adventure game. The game was very basic, switching states using key inputs that would display different text and options. Using ENUM – Is used to declare an enumeration, a distinct type that consists of a set of named constants called the enumerator list.

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Behavior Trees and how they work

Are there any video games that use neural networks AI

Four cool ways to use neural networks for games

Hierarchical FSMs or Hierarchy of Nested FSMs



Video Blog #1

Video blogs will be based around video’s watched for the week, regarding the project. It will detail what I learnt from the video, what it was about, who and background information regarding the who and other things that I should be considering in some way.

Video #1 – Juice It or Lose It
Who? Martin Jonasson & Petri Purho
Martin Jonasson is the founder of grapefrukt games. Petri Purho is a rapid game developer, he worked at Frozenbyte  and is the creator of Pluto Strikes Back, The amazing Flying brothers, A tribute to the rolling boulder and Crayon Physics.

These two gave a conference talk about when it comes to creating games, the game needs to have juiciness. The juiciness they are referring to is how you make the game feel more responsive, making it feel alive and responding to everything you do. They talk about how if you can juice your game you will get the maximum output for the least input by doing so.  They talk about the art of tweening which is the process of generating intermediate frames between two images to give the appearance that the first image evolves into the second image, by doing so increases the juiciness of the game.

This conference talk gave great insight into what you should consider when creating a video game, and how by making it juicier it can make it greater, through out the video they give a demonstration, they turn a basic game into something with more meaning by adding small but effective effects to different parts of the game, this was the juiciness they were referring too, but you can’t just go adding random affects, it still needs to be within the range of your game.

Video #2 – You don’t stand a chance

Who? Rami Ismail
Rami is a game developer who has been in the business for over 30 years, he’s worked on games for every major platform and is the co-founder of Vlambeer. Released games:

  • Nuclear Throne
  • Ridiculous Fishing
  • Luftrausers
  • Serious Sam
  • Yeti Hunter
  • GlitchHunter
  • Super Crate box

This talk was more about how to survive your first indie game release and why you should be prepared for failure, the talk revolves around failure over success, why it’s important, what to take into account with the failure etc.
He makes you understand that it is okay to fail, not to worry about it when it happens, that everyone will fail, you can’t expect to succeed straight away, he mentions that you should prepare for the failure by adjusting your goals and creating a space where you can fail.

Rami also talks about everything you need to know or should take into consideration with your first indie game, he briefly talks about these different subjects:

  • Gathering people to help with your game
  • What is it? what do you want to create?
  • Game being too big, scoping of the project
  • Having a good game pitch
  • Game design – understanding what you’re making, what is it, why is it interesting??
  • Going beyond “sell it” – more than just the idea of selling it, what else will you do with the project
  • Game art – is it coherent with the game? does it fit an create harmony?
  • Audio – Does the audio fit the aspects of the game?
  • Marketing – Do you have screenshots? Trailer? are they good?
  • Being mentally prepared for bad reviews when you release it – I thought this one was a big one, because reviews can be really crushing
  • Do you think enough? knowing what you are doing? plan/strategy.

As Rami was touching down on the subjects it made me really think about what I was going to do for this project and if the planning I had done was enough to be ready.

Video #3 – The Art of Screenshake

Who? Jan Willem
Jan Willem is the other half of Vlambeer, he is in charge of the game design and execution of the companies games.

Jan Willem  talks a lot about ‘Game Feel’, kind of the like the ‘Juice It or Lose It’ he demonstrates how adding a whole set of animations or effects can really change the outcome of a game. He explains how adding small details can really engage a player and to create a game with meaning, give it a purpose. Create a prototype and polish. The demonstration he gives during his presentation is amazing, the smallest detail can be noticed and when its put together and finished, you fully realize just what he was talking about is incredible.

Video #4 – Finding Duskers : Innovation through better design pillars

Who? Tim Keenan
Founder of Misfits Attic, they are responsible for the successful game Duskers.

Tim Keenan in this talk about design pillars but more importantly his process of design pillars. The way he described a standard design pillar was it being something that was core, established before production and everything would be based around the design pillar. What he did different was create the design pillars through out the production, his design pillars were more about emotions/feelings and stay true to your design pillars.

Now I had never even touch base with design pillars before so watching this video was very informative and I was able to take some great notes from it.

These videos may seem like they have nothing specifically to do with my Game AI project but in truth they have given me a lot more to think about when I go about researching and implementing.

Proposal update + Game AI Research

Beginning with the proposal, after having the supervisor discussion, had to have a big think about which way i was going to take my project. To create an Immersive world or research and implement into AI based entities in a VR environment.

Before deciding on which one to go with, I needed to define what an AI is in terms to video games. Because they are not generally typical AI entities. My Game AI research supported that claim, that AI’s in video games are not “true” AI beings, but are instead entities that are programmed to generate human like intelligence, they are generated with a limited amount of responses and inputs but do not facilitate computer learning like a general AI entity, which is what separates them from traditional AI’s, Game AI’s are typically seen as NPC’s (Non-Player Characters).

Once I was able to define what an AI is, in terms to video games, I was able to decide on what my project will be based around. Research on Game AI’s in a VR Environment with implementation of a VR demo demonstrating what I have learnt from the research.

Further resaerch into Game AI’s lead me into learning about two movement methods used for Game AI’s. These methods are called Pathfinding and Navigation.

Pathfinding is used on NPC’s to get them from Point A to Point B on a map, it takes into consideration of terrain and obstacles.

Navigation is a sub field of Game AI, it focuses more on giving NPCs the ability to navigate around their environment, finding a path to their destination, while avoiding collisions and even collaborating with other entities.

These methods can generally be seen in real-time strategy games. While getting more in depth with pathfinding, it was mentioned that pathfinding has two problems that can be fixed using a set of algorithms. The first problem is finding a path between two nodes, this can be fixed using the Breadth-first and Depth-first , these two together fix the problem by iterating over the paths till it reaches the destination node. The second problem is finding the shortest route, this can be fixed by using the A * (A Star) and Dijkstra’s algorithms, they fix the problem by going over the tree or graph and strategically eliminating paths.

I will be going more in depth into these two methods for my project as they may become crucial pieces for programming the movement of the Game AI. Pathfinding vs Navigation or if it is possible to use both of them in one entity.

I want to do this sort of project to expand my knowledge in VR environments but also to expand my knowledge in game interfaces, programming etc. I want to see just what makes a Game AI tick, the types of behaviors it can function on and more over. The newly written proposal is more focused on this aspect, and is a lot more clearer on what this project will be focused around.

Supervisor Discussion #1

First discussion with my supervisor Craig Nicoll, even though I had already submitted my project proposal for my project, we went over the proposal anyway to figure out if i needed to re-write it and be more specific about what my project should be based around, well he wanted to see what my project was about, to get an understanding about how he was going to help me through.

After Craig had a quick read through my proposal, he knew that it was going to get rejected, and he made it clear exactly why the proposal would get rejected. The proposal that I had submitted was messy in a sense that when reading it, it wasn’t clear on what exactly I wanted to achieve with this project or research/create. It was also clear that I was getting to ambitious with the project and the amount I was trying to do was unrealistic, the scope was too big for me.

The reason the proposal was messy, was because it was unclear what I wanted to do, did I want to create an immersive world or learn about AI inside of a VR environment, Craig made it clear I needed to slice the proposal into something more achievable. The process we went through was narrowing the scope of the project “What am I researching?”, splitting the proposal into the two subjects and decide from there which I was going to pursue, immersive world or AI in VR.

Notes taken from Discussion:


  • Code an AI to change it’s behavior accordingly to my actions
  • Create an immersive world with a sense of emotion

What am I specifically doing?

  • Summarizing code learning/outcomes
  • C# supports VR – what coding best practice patterns are involved with this?
  • What are the implementable best practices for C# + VR environments to deliver a submersive VR environment?
  • Show my learning by implementing research in a VR Demo

Whats my angle:

  • AI? Behavior, code that reacts & learns
  • What would that look like?
  • AI in virtual environments to manipulate human emotion
  • C# best practices/patterns for AI
  • Enabling interaction in VR environments
  • Recommended to look into UX – User Experience

My discussion with Craig has given me a lot of insight into what I really want to do, what I want to learn about and what my project will be. Craig also gave me some videos I should watch in order to get an understanding about Game Development or Game Feels. A to do list was also written up for me to work off of.

  1. Rewrite proposal
    -What I want to learn
    -VR environments (AI/Immerison)
  2. Define AI
  3. Begin Watching Game Feel (Playlist) and GDC – VR
  4. Video Blog format



Project Proposal

The project I have in mind for the course will be based around research and implementation of a Virtual Environment/Reality.

Virtual Reality is a major interest of mine, and I want to be able to advance my knowledge in that field. I want to create a Horror VR game, I think it would be so cool to do!! I will need to think of a plot if it gets approved.

I already had a proposal prepared for PRJ701 thought RES701, using the feedback I received from RES701 for my proposal, I needed to make some minor changes to the proposal, mainly to with the timeline, as I never specified how long it would take me to learn how to use Unity and some what master C# coding. Also the timeline I provided with the proposal was not realistic at all, so the timetable of the work needed to be updated majorly.

Adding to the timeline, I recently found an online course through Udemy that would take up to 45 hours to complete, the online course was about using Unity and C#. For me, this was the perfect way to begin working through my project, having the skill to . The other changes were just updated dates and hours for the activities to be done in.

I was also a little worried that the project wasn’t specific enough in what I want to achieve, but after reviewing the paper and not having any clear evidence of that being an issue from the RES701 feedback, I let it slide, if there is an issue with it hopefully the project coordinator will be able to let me know before the final hand in deadline, so I can then make the necessary changes in order to begin the project.